2017年10月
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14
15 16 17 18 19 20 21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28
29 30 31        

world estate

FX Trade

  • FXチャート ブログパーツFX

資源貿易リンク

記事リスト①

  • 2010.1-10 記事リスト①
    中国の貿易政策と海外戦略 10/10/21 中国レア・アース危機への対応 10/10/21 中国との貿易交渉術 10/10/19 円高デフレと産業構造変化 10/10/18 日本と資源大国ロシアの石油産業 10/10/18 非資源国の石油調達戦略 10/10/15 日本の貿易政策;FTA協定(4) 10/10/11 日本の貿易政策:FTA協定(3) 10/10/11 日本の貿易政策:FTA協定(2) 10/10/11 日本の貿易政策:FTA協定(1) 10/10/11 日本貿易の生命線:輸出市場の転換点 10/10/06 日本の資源エネルギー貿易政策(3) 国際独占資本ロイヤルダッチシェルのアジア市場戦略 10/10/02 JETRO 海外調査部 中国市場開拓セミナー参加報告 10/09/09 (2)産業空洞化( de-industrialization )と貿易政策 10/09/07 貿易政策の使命:外需(外部経済)としての景気対策(1) 10/09/07 中国農民工の子弟と日本の大学教育 10/08/21 貿易の定義(教材) 10/06/26 拓殖大学大学院 商学研究科説明会  貿易論の講座内容 10/06/26 2010 国際商取引・貿易演習ゼミ 科目構成(武上ゼミ) 10/06/26 国際取引論の学問体系について 10/06/26 円高による輸出不振は日本産業の空洞化を招く 10/06/26 授業参考資料:日本石油産業転換点(6/23出典ダイヤモンド小島武志氏) 10/06/23 拓殖大学経営経理研究所 研究発表・研究紹介 2010.4. 10/06/23 日本経済のサービス化とサービス貿易の発展 10/06/23 日本と世界のエネルギー貿易(基礎ゼミ資料) 10/06/23 日本のエネルギー資源貿易政策(2)戦後石油産業生成期から見る貿易特性 10/06/23 定期考査・課題リポートの件 10/06/17 貿易論を学ぶ学徒へ:恒産なくして恒心あり 10/06/16 国際取引・貿易ゼミ 「卒業論文のテーマ設定について」 10/06/15 拓殖大学商学部 多国籍企業論 キーワード 講義メモ 2010/5 東洋経済新報社版 テキスト 第8章 独占と不完全競争 10/04/09 東洋経済新報社 テキスト 第9章 寡占経済 10/04/09 2010年度 商学部 国際取引・国際貿易論 講義要項 10/04/09 2010年度大学院商学研究科 講義要項 10/04/09 講義資料:中国・台湾貿易の特徴 (学内使用に限るJETRO HP出典資料より修正) 10/04/09 円高問題とデフレ経済 10/04/09 国際収支・対外負債勘定の急激な変化 2010 10/04/09 国際独占資本の市場支配 10/04/08 資源無き国の貿易政策 10/04/08 貿易通貨と円の起源 10/04/08 中国留学生へ 学問・資格 10/02/20 貿易理論 講座研究用資料 ダウンロード1 10/02/18 経済・貿易理論 第十五章 東洋経済新報社版 テキスト 10/02/17 経済・貿易理論 第十七章  10/02/17 経済・貿易理論 第一章 (東洋経済新報社版 オンラインテキスト)10/02/17 東アジア貿易の構造変化分析 10/01/22 Research & Development Management and Technology Transfer 10/01/20 一年生オリエンテーション講義 10/01/20 技術拡散と市場成果 10/01/20 経営戦略と市場行動 電子技術関連産業と製品市場構造 10/01/20 グローバルR&Dシステムの構築 10/01/20 MNCの内部化理論 10/01/20 市場成長と技術のプロフィール 10/01/20 自動車産業の貿易構造と産業内分業体制 10/01/20 国際技術移行モデル(事例分析) 10/01/20 技術革新と国際投資市場 10/01/20 プロダクトライフサイクル仮説と製品市場戦略 10/01/20 Product design and market strategy(3) 10/01/20 Strategic Information System & technical method of marketing simulation 10/01/20 国際市場と競争戦略 10/01/20 APPROACH TO THE ANALYSIS OF COMPLEX SYSTEM 10/01/20 Analyses of Purchasing Behavior in the Artificial market & its agents 10/01/20 An analysis on product design(1) Characteristic of precision-optical-products market 10/01/20 An Analysis on Product Design (2) Market character of Precision optical products 10/01/20 INTERNATIONAL TRADE&TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION 国際貿易と技術革新 10/01/20 Analysis on Information Technology and corporate strategy 10/01/20 国際取引論講義2009年度 案 10/01/20 研究の過去実績(2001年まで) 10/01/20 不完全市場の企業戦略 10/01/20 進路開拓と就職準備について 10/01/20 Structure of product market & corporate strategy(material) 10/01/20 国際取引論の学問体系 10/01/20 研究領域の紹介(武上ゼミ) 10/01/20 貿易の働き(講義資料) 10/01/20 拓殖大学大学院商学研究科のガイダンス 指導内容 10/01/20 日本のエネルギー資源貿易政策(3) 10/01/20 日本のエネルギー資源貿易政策(2) 10/01/20 日本のエネルギー資源貿易政策(1) 10/01/20 円高による輸出不振は日本産業の空洞化を招く 10/01/20 多国籍企業論の内容 10/01/20

燃料油脂新聞社

国際エネルギー機関 IEA

http://www.exxonmobil.com/Corporate/

エクソン・モービル(スタンダードオイル)

Royal Dutch Shell ロイヤルダッチ・シェル

Pertonas ペトロナス (マレーシア)

GAZPROM ガスプロム(ロシア)

CNPC ペトロチャイナ

AGIP/ENI(イタリア)

Chevron(US)

PERTAMINA(プルタミナ・インドネシア)

k takegami

  • k takegami

石油動向:石油情報センター日本エネルギー経済研究所

JOGMEC:石油天然ガス・金属鉱物資源機構

投稿リスト

  • 貿易関係 リンク・リスト
    JETRO http://www.jetro.go.jp/links/ 経済産業省 ‐外務省 資源エネルギー庁 税関総務省統計局、統計センター 環境省 . OECD日本政府代表部 ‐投資委員会「多国籍企業行動指針」 日本貿易保険 産業技術総合研究所 (財)国際経済交流  国立環境研究所 経済産業研究所 中小企業基盤整備機構 国際協力銀行(JBIC) 国際協力機構(JICA)科学技術振興機構 ‐サイエンスポータル国際観光振興機構(JNTO) 日本銀行 東京商工会議所 (社)日本経済団体連合会(社) 環日本海経済研究所(ERINA) 日本銀行金融研究所 日本商工会議所(財)経済広報センター..貿易・投資関係機関等(財)日本関税協会(財)国際貿易投資研究所(ITI)(財)対日貿易投資交流促進協会(MIPRO) (社)日本貿易会 (財)貿易研修センター日・欧産業協力センター日露貿易投資促進機構 (財)海外貿易開発協会 (財)海外技術者研修協会 (財)安全保障貿易情報センター(CISTEC) (社)日本通関業連合会貿易アドバイザー協会(AIBA)
  • 投稿リスト
    タイトル 技術拡散と市場成果 経営戦略と市場行動 電子技術関連産業と製品市場構造 グローバルR&Dシステムの構築 MNCの内部化理論 市場成長と技術のプロフィール 自動車産業の貿易構造と産業内分業体制 国際技術移行モデル(事例分析) 技術革新と国際投資市場 プロダクトライフサイクル仮説と製品市場戦略 Product design and market strategy(3) Strategic Information System & technical method of marketing simulation 国際市場と競争戦略 APPROACH TO THE ANALYSIS OF COMPLEX SYSTEM Analyses of Purchasing Behavior in the Artificial market & its agents An analysis on product design(1) Characteristic of precision-optical-products market An Analysis on Product Design (2) Market character of Precision optical products INTERNATIONAL TRADE&TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION 国際貿易と技術革新 Analysis on Information Technology and corporate strategy 国際取引論講義2009年度 案 1 研究の過去実績(2001年まで) 不完全市場の企業戦略 進路開拓と就職準備について Structure of product market & corporate strategy(material) 一年生オリエンテーション講義 国際取引論の学問体系 研究領域の紹介(武上ゼミ) 貿易の働き(講義資料) 拓殖大学大学院商学研究科のガイダンス 指導内容 日本のエネルギー資源貿易政策(3) 日本のエネルギー資源貿易政策(2) 日本のエネルギー資源貿易政策(1) 円高による輸出不振は日本産業の空洞化を招く 多国籍企業論の内容

DOE:アメリカエネルギー機関

Oil and Gas Investor エネルギー市場情報

講演・セミナー実績

  • 講演会・セミナー・フォーラムなど実績
    講演会・セミナー・フォーラムなど実績 講演会: ①株式会社アマダ社 ②テレビ朝日 ③日本ビジネスコミュニケーション学会 ⑤全国信用金庫協会     ⑥愛知県経済同友会主     ⑦愛知県半田市役所     ⑧愛知県常滑市役所    

OPEC 石油輸出国機構

JICA院生訪問

  • 198 2011 6-10 JICA 横浜 訪問
    2011 6-11 JICA 横浜 訪問講義と見学

AngloAmerican アングロアメリカン (資源メジャー)

職業訓練(貿易英語・貿易実務)のページ 2014 大学院貿易講座

  • 厚生労働省東京、神奈川労働局の実施する職業訓練 (数少ない貿易分野の仕事志望者を支える技術訓練) 貿易分野の業務は、これまで経験重視のキャリアプランが中心だったが、IT化が税関NACCS他用いられ、またグローバル化により様相が変わってきている。特にモノからサービスへの貿易転換で、取引仕組みや、ドキュメント作成のディスシプリンもファイナンス取引に移行している。 (2013年度訓練生の皆さんと)

レアメタルリアルタイム市況チャート

レアアース市況動向

原油・石油製品市況

ウラン市況動向

米国政策提案リベラル系シンクタンク:ブルッキングズ研究所

戦略国際問題研究所CSIS

ロイター経済情報

  • ロイター経済情報
    CFDブログパーツCFD

経済チャート・市況情報

米国エネルギー株 市況

DowJones U.S.Market Atlas 米国企業情報データベース

中国ビジネスサポートサイト「Chinawork」

飯野海運株式会社

Frontline(フロントライン)

Energy Bulletin : Post carbon institute

旧外地産業・戦前石油関係資料室

パリOECD本部  forum 2011

  • 50asite
    OECDパリ本部 12/6-8 国際投資フォーラム出席 戦後最大の経済危機を迎えたEU経済は、それに依存するアフリカ、中南米、アジアの国々に多大な影響を与えている。米国主導のOECDが、この難局に政策提案する。

Dubai

  • DUBAI_599
    2011 12./10 ドバイ 国際貿易(ワールドトレード)センター 訪問

石炭大国旧東欧ポーランド訪問

  • 日本CCT技術にエネルギーのトレードオフ関係の可能性
    石炭王国ポーランドと日本のCCT技術:炭鉱の町訪問記2009 CCTクリーン・コール・テクノロジーでは先進技術を持つ日本技術の提供とポーランドの二酸化炭素排出権を供給するというトレードオフの関係強化のため、近年、政府もアプローチをおこなっている
FX 口座開設

gogo.gs
無料ブログはココログ

Research & Development Management and Technology Transfer

Research & Development Management and Technology Transfer (1)

Konosuke Takegami

Table of contents

1. Introduction

2. Recent argument concerning technology transfer

3. International trend of technology transfer

4. R&D management and Technology transfer model

5. Closing remarks

Abstract

Technology transfer will cause economic development and diffuse one way from superior level of technology to inferior one owing to a technology gap, which makes the main advocated discipline of the classical hypothesis model of PLC. In this essay, the stream of technology transfer of Japan in the postwar period and up to the present will be described, so that it would be suggested that, as the inter-industrial transfer of technology increases in response to the rise of level of the economic development, technology transfer of Japan would come to cause more between the countries and the corporations of the similar and nearly the same level of technology than the different ones. To illustrate these tendencies, some model of technology transfer will be provided.

1. Introduction

Japanese companies at present have met a serious problem of international technology transfer owing to strict enforcement of intellectual property in the revision of WTO treaty. Technology transfer stemming from comparatively excellent Euro-American intelligence has extended to Japanese companies so much profit without developing original product technology, saving a large sum of initial investment cost. In this essay, the recent arguments concerning technology transfer around Japanese manufacturer have been provided and in the days to come Japanese ones would be supposed to make an efficient technology transfer model. In the conclusion of this small essay, it will be shown that the effective technology transfer between the corporations under R&D management on the more similar technical level would be happened than less similar level.

2. Recent argument concerning technology transfer

2-1.The Current Status of Science and Technology of

Japan

    “The leading advanced nations are reacting to economic globalization and to the attendant intensification of competition in the global economy, and to the increased importance of energy, food, global environmental problems, and other global issues by aggressively promoting science and technology policies towards the assurance of competitive strengths and employment, and towards the resolution of global issues.” says a preface of White Paper on Science and technology 2003

 In

Japan

, R&D expenditure witnessed an increase for the second consecutive year due to large increases among private-sector enterprises. “Although the number of researchers in FY2002 took an upturn year-on-year, R&D personnel on the whole, including research support staff and technicians, witnessed the fourth consecutive year of declines.” (Table 1)

As can be seen, “the human and capital resources that are foundations for

Japan

science and technology have been forced into retreat by Japans prolonged economic stagnation. This retreat should cause for concern for

Japan

that aims to become a nation based on creativity of science and technology.” Table 1 would compare

Japan

and major countries in the areas pertaining to science and technology, such as research expenditures and the number of researchers, so as to highlight the special characteristics of

Japan

science and technology activities. This information will then be used for a more in depth analysis of the trends in

Japan

research activities.

2-2.International Comparisons of Science and Technology Indicators

“A prerequisite for making international comparisons of statistical data is to examine the subject statistical data. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has prepared as a guideline for the collection and analysis of data related to scientific and technological activities, and has asked member countries to base their science and technology indicators.”

The method for calculating the number of researchers is derived from two types of data-a simple head count of the number of researchers, and a full-time equivalent (FTE) value which takes into consideration the proportion of time actually devoted to research activities. The latter is touted in the Manual as being a proper quantitative method for measuring research personnel resources, and all OECD member countries are called upon to support the FTE value. (Table 2)

“In

Japan

, a conversion of various elements has been used to arrive at a number representing the number of researchers. The FTE differs from the simple head count especially in the case of researchers at universities and colleges, who are also engaged in teaching activities, and thus, this also changes the corresponding amount of research expenses used at universities and colleges.” 

A manual of OCED provided for proper international comparisons of R&D statistics. The original proposal for the first edition of this manual was made at a meeting in

Frascati

,

Italy

, in1963, and the manual was completed after discussions and revisions by experts of OECD member countries. Operations to revise the manual are currently underway. The sixth edition was published in December2002.

FTE value: FTE is an abbreviation of Full Time Equivalent, and is a converted value showing the actual time engaged in research. If a re-searcher has an average of30%of his/her working hours allocated to research and development operations and is engaged in other activities.

2-3. Research and Development in the European Union

The Treaty on European Union, commonly known as the Maastricht Treaty was signed in1992, and the European Union (EU) was established. The next step in this development was introduction of a common currency in January1999, which was followed three years later, in January2002, with the circulation of Euro-denominated coins and bills in member states .Ten central and eastern European countries have been granted membership in the EU for2004.

The EU has demonstrated its important presence in recent years in many arenas on the international stage, rapidly establishing its position as a global player. In terms of science and technology indicators, the EU is second only to the United States. In the future,

Japan

should not fail to ensure a good relationship with the EU so that

Japan

can enhance its international competitive strength

“The basic objectives of the EU science and technology policy are strengthening the scientific and technological basis of Community industry and encouraging it to become more competitive at an international level, while promoting all the re-search activities deemed necessary by virtue of other Chapters of this Treaty :Treaty Establishing the European Community. Based on these objectives, the Framework Program(Sixth Frame-work Program(FP6),from2002to2006,now in progress showing the basic framework for research and development activities in the EU was adopted.”

While the EU is not targeted by the international comparisons in this part of this publication, because it is not a nation but rather a community of nation states, indicators for the EU have been included in these comparisons in Part2wherever possible, as totals of science and technology indicators for EU countries.

EU science and technology indicators: The EU science and technology indicators utilize research expenses drawn from data reported by Euro stat European Commission Statistics Bureau, number of researchers from data reported by the OECD, and number of patent applications and registrations from WIPO(World Intellectual Property Organization)data.

3. International trend of technology transfer

3-1. The R&D expense flows in selected countries

“When a country examines its R&D expenditures, its statistics contents and approach may differ from other nations. As a result, a simple comparison of R&D expenditures among countries may not present comparable data, although it gives a general idea as to a country' s attitude towards science and technology. In terms of R&D expenditures, the United States registered the highest total,at36.6trillion yen at the IMF currency con-version rate(42.5trillion yen at the OECD purchasing power parity conversion rate),followed by Japan at16.5trillion yen(or15.5trillion yen at the FTE value),and EU at16.0trillion yen at IMF exchange rate conversion(27.1trillion yen at the OECD purchasing power parity). “

On the definition of R&D expenditures in the Report on the Survey of Research and Development by the Ministry of Public Management Statistics Bureau, research is defined as creative efforts and investigations conducted to obtain new knowledge about things, functions, and phenomena, or to open paths toward new applications of existing knowledge. All outlays incurred for these activities, labor costs, materials, expenditure on tangible fixed assets, etc. are treated as research expenditures. “R&D expenditures in real terms for selected countries are calculated in order to compare growth rate. The trend for recent years shows the

United States

,

Germany

and

Japan

registering high growth. The high growth in the United States is seemingly due to increased research and development investment by private corporations with the economic boom, while that for Japan reflects expansion in private-sector companies research and development investment, and growth has been registered for seven straight years beginning in FY1995”.Japans R&D expense flows between sources of funding and sector of performance reveal that about47%of government funding goes to universities, about 42%to government research institutions, and about11%to the private sector. In private-sector funding, by contrast, about 99%goes to the private sector, with about0.8%to universities and about0.1%to government research institutions.

Comparing flows of R&D expenditures between financing and performance sectors shows that in Japan there is a lesser flow of R&D expenditures between sectors(government, industry, universities and colleges)than exists in other countries. The ratio of private sector R&D expenditures funded by government is high in the

United States

and in

France

. The

United Kingdom

is characterized by a large proportion of R&D expenditures being borne by abroad

“On the reason that the R&D expense flows from government to the private sector, and from the private sector to universities, are so low in

Japan

, we can point out that research and development in

Japan

more often relies on private-sector activities than that in other countries. The large flows from government to the private sector in the

United States

,

France

, and elsewhere are due to the large flows of aerospace research and defense research funds. Moreover, a major reason for the large flow of research funds from foreign countries into the

United Kingdom

is likely the existence in that country of many foreign-capitalized corporations with research and development centers in operation, which would therefore be sending R&D funds to the

United Kingdom

from their own home countries. Using the Statistics Bureaus statistics to look at Japans technology trade by industrial category in the manufacturing sector in FY2001, we find that such high-tech related industries as the motor vehicles industry, the communication and electronic equipment industry, the electrical machinery, equipment and supplies industry, and the drug and medicines industry, accounted for the majority of both exports and imports. For the trends over time in the technology trade balance, the motor vehicles industry has long had an excess of exports and is steadily widening its technology trade balance, while the communications and electronic equipment industry has generally showed an excess of imports.” The electric machinery, equipment and supplies industry, which had once been tilted toward imports, has had an excess of exports since FY1993.While the drug and medicines industry has in recent years been in general balance, tilted over to an excess of exports in FY1996,and has tended more on that trend since. (Figure 1)

For the balance of payments in technology trade by trade partner country and region and by industrial category, the motor vehicles industry shows an excess of exports with all other countries, with a particularly large technology export trade by value with the

United States

. The communication and electronic equipment industry generally shows a strong excess of exports with

Asia

but holds an excess of imports overall. The drug and medicines industry trades overwhelmingly with Europe and

United States

, and holds an overall export surplus.

              (Figure 1) R&D expense flows in selected countries

3-2. Measures Adopted for Promotion of Science and Technology

In the reformation of Japans Science and Technology System, public research institutes clarify the responsibility of institutes and researchers to explain to society the content and results of their research, and voluntarily and proactively promote intellectual asset rights for research results rather than solely relying on research papers. ”During the period of the First Science and Technology Basic Plan, each ministry and agency, working from the necessity of strengthening incentives to individual researchers, made efforts to attribute patents obtained during working hours to individuals, in order to encourage their utilization. These efforts did not necessarily lead to increased implementation. As a result, to more effectively encourage utilization of research and development results, patents are now to be attributed to the research institution, in line with proposals in the Second Science and Technology Basic Plan Accordingly, the number of preferential licenses extended to private sector organizations resulting from patents obtained through joint research between national research institutes and the private sector organizations has increased with every passing year.”

To promote close coordination between national universities and local businesses, and to promote vigorous joint research activities, These venture business laboratories are aimed at the promotion of creative research and development that will result in the creation of new industries, and the nurturing of creative personnel with an advanced level of specialized professional skill. In addition, the Law for Facilitating Govern-mental Research Exchange was partially amended so that, starting from August1998,land lease costs can be set at less than market value in the case of a private company, etc., building a joint research facility on a site belonging to a national university or national research institute. As a result of this amendment, joint research facilities were outfitted on the grounds of

Hokkaido

University

and

Shinshu

University

, and plans are in progress to erect a joint research facility on the grounds of Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology. Furthermore, following the enactment of the Law to Strengthen Industrial Technical Ability in April2000, technology licensing organizations (TLOs) have the ability to use as offices the facilities of national universities, etc., at no cost.

Additionally, Article30 of the Industrial Re-vitalization Law (the so-called

Japan

version of the U.S. Bayh-Dole Act) put into force in October1999, allows the researcher to whom government-sponsored research has been commissioned to fully own patent rights, etc., gained through research. This change is expected to stimulate greater desire to engage in research, and to promote commercialization of research results in the private sector.

4. R&D management and Technology transfer model

In this chapter, the popular technology transfer models of product life cycle and their modified model will be introduced. On the time horizon model, which will shows how and when the corporations decide R&D investment,1) the extension model2) shall be introduced to examine the effect of time-length, the level of entry cost fluctuation and the competitive behavior of the rival corporation.

A shorter time horizon (a lower β) implies that corporation attaches less emergency to the introductory period of technology.

The corporation chooses its optimal R & D level in the first period to maximize its inter-temporal objective functions the first order is given as follows:

Γx= ( 1+r) + β{ f(α)πxdα―Φx}   (1)

Proposition 1: A lower β causes R & D investment to decrease:

 dx / dβ>0

To proof: Totally differentiating (1) and noting the second-order condition,

sin{d X / dβ} =sin[Γx β]whereΓxβ =∫f(α)πd α―Φx

= 1 + r / β >0  

Hence: dx / d β >0

In the investment response function in a duopoly case, how a firm R&D investment decision is affected by a change in the rival corporation’s R&D level.3) Let us focus on the company A will change the R&D level in response to an increase in the R&D level of the company B.4)

If the R&D level of the company A is given X, and the company B, X’

Let donate the inter-temporal objective function of X

Γ Ξ( 1+r)X + β{ E(π)ΦX,X’f(α))}      (2)

Where E(π)=f(α)π(X,X’、α)dα.

Proposition 2: The company A has an incentive to raise the R&D level in response to an increase in the R&D level of the rival company B.

Corollary 2: If ΦX,X’<0 and the term in (2) dominates the (1), the best response function is positively sloped:

dx dx’>0. if ΦX,X’ >0, it is negatively sloped: dX/dX’<0

Proposition 3:δα/δX< at X=X’ and fδ(α|δ)>0、then an increase in δmakes the company A has an incentive to raise the R&D level: Φx、δ<0

Corollary 3: if Φxδ<0 and the term in (2) dominates the (1), then an increase in

Figure 2incentives shown being affected the case whether dδ>0 or dδ<0)

f(α)

Δδ>0

f( α|lowδ)

f( α|lowδ)

This analysis will show the growth of effectiveness caused by the investment incentives.5) The incentives are consisted of subsidy of technology trade as shown in the Table 3.

 Table3 Technology trade balance between selected countries by counterpart

5. Closing remarks

It will be shown that the effective technology transfer between the corporations under R&D management on the more similar technical level, who might be rival competitors, could be happened than less similar level as is indicated in the figure 2 which is in the case of duopoly. Those corporations who have technological likeness and similar tendency might have mutually more incentive to introduce technology and make more investment than other counterpart who has less.6) The hypotheses of product-life-cycle model between under developing low-level technology countries and high-tech ones will be shown in the following essay of Research & Development Management and Technology Transfer (2)

.

Notes on comments concerning technology transfer

1) “Strategic management models, including Porter’s traditionally have defined the firm’s strategy in terms of its product / market positioning – the products it makes and the markets it served. The resource-based approach however, prescribes that firms position themselves strategically based on their resources and capabilities rather than on the products and services derived from those capabilities Resources and capabilities, especially organizational skills and practices learned over time, can became highly unique to a particular firm and hard to imitate by other firms. Competitive advantage based on resources and capabilities therefore is potentially much more sustainable than that based on product and market positioning. Product technology is being considered the most important strategic resources, and the ability to create and apply it the most important capability for building and sustaining competitive advantage. Intuitively, it makes sense that the firm that knows more about its customers, products, technologies, markets and their linkages should perform better, Resources-based theories of the firm offer the promise of a solid intellectual foundation for validating these claims made for knowledge by the popular press. This view is leading to a further development in resource-based economic theory called the knowledge- based view of the firm. The firm is seen primarily as a vehicle for creating, integrating, storing, and applying knowledge. Technology is ubiquitous, invisible, taken for granted, and never explicitly valued or managed. However, in the dynamic global economy, none of the traditional rules apply; the firms must explicitly address a range of decisions regarding the creation, development, and maintenance of their resources and capabilities.”

M.H. Zack “Knowledge and strategy” 1999

2) “Although the international transfer of technology has been going on for a long time, the scale and the impact of such activities have vastly accelerated in the past 150 years ago. The industrial revolution, beginning in

Great Britain

in the third of the eighteen century, had at its center a rapidly expanding armamentarium of new technologies involving new power sources, new techniques of metallurgy and machine making, and new modes of transportation. These new technologies, when successfully organized and administered, brought immense improvements in productivity that transformed the lives of all participants. One essential aspect of this revolution in technology must be understood because it is likely to be highly relevant to the prospects for the successful transfer of technology. The separate innovations in metallurgy, power generation, and transportation- were, in significant ways, interrelated and mutually reinforcing. Often, one innovation could not be extensively exploited in the absence of others or the introduction of one innovation made others more effective. Metallurgical improvements, for example, were absolutely indispensable to the construction of more efficient stream engines. The steam engine, in turn, was utilized for introducing a hot blast of air into the blast furnace. The hot blast, by improvements and thereby reduced the price of iron. Thus cheaper metal meant cheaper power, and cheaper power was translated into even cheaper metal. Similarly, the availability of cheap iron was essential to the construction of railroads. Once in place, however, the railroads reduced the considerable cost of transporting coal and iron ore to a single location. In this fashion, railroads reduced the cost of making iron. But cheaper iron, in turn, meant cheaper rails; this involved a further lowering of transportation cost, which again decreased the cost of producing iron. Thus, part of the secret of the vast productivity improvements associated with the new technology was that the separate innovations were often interrelated and mutually reinforcing.”

Nathan Rosenberg. “Inside the black Box” 1982

3) “The diffusion of innovation a, a process as important to economic development as invention, has received a little attention from historians until relatively recently. Anthropologists led the way with research examining the spread of practices as diverse as water boiling and birth control and of products ranging from ham radio sets to hybrid wheat strains and new drugs. Economists increasingly moved into the field during the 1950s and 1960s, seeking explanations for differences in economic growth rates and reasons for failures to transplant American technology abroad.From this work two different, but not necessarily exclusive, methodological approaches have emerged. On the one hand, there is the contention that the diffusion of inventions is essentially economic phenomenon, the timing of which can be largely explained by expected profits. On the other hand, social factors clearly play a part, and often a crucial one as the varied success of American foreign aid programs indicates. Sawyer drew attention to non-economic factors, like value systems, family patterns, and social stratification, in explaining British rejection of American methods of manufacturing in the 1850s and 1950s. As arrow wrote, in effect, the economists are studying the demand for information by potential innovators and sociologists the problems in the supply of communication channels. Although no general theory has been developed to fit all cases of technology diffusion in both its economic and social dimensions, two economic concepts have been broadly accepted: pioneering economies are not necessarily overhauled by imitators, and followers do not necessarily take the same route as have leaders. Such general propositions imply a wide diversity in diffusion experience. Even so, a number of common constraints affection rates of transfer have been distilled by

Rosenberg

from earlier work on technology transfer. Following Usher, who viewed inventive activity as continuous and cumulative,

Rosenberg

observed that diffusion is likely to be a gradual that the level of human skills in the receptor economy is one of several factors influencing the length of the imitator’s learning period; that machine-making skills are crucial element in receiving economy. That bottle neck in other productive activities will have to be removed before a new invention can spread; that old techniques may be improved so as to extend their economic viability and that social and institutional constrains may inhibit diffusion. Of the growing number of historian case studies of technology diffusion appearing in recent years, most have focused on a single technology or single country.”

David. J. Jeremy “Transatlantic industrial revolutions.” The MIT press.1981

4) “Spencer and Brander (1983) focus on cost-reducing or process R&D which outcome is certain, and argue that investment response functions are negatively sloped. However, there exist a plenty of counter-examples against such a soft response. An example shows Xerox’s tough action against Japanese challengers.”

Nakamura Hiroshi “Manager’s Risk-Aversion to Poor Performance and Inter-temporal R & D Decision” Keio Graduate-Univ. Business Forum 1998

5) Dertouzos et al (1989) claim that “Japanese companies were penetrating the low end of the copier market in the

US

with high-quality, low-cost products. It was not until 1979 that Xerox management understood the powerful challenge being mounted by Japanese competitors; strong actions were taken starting in 1979 to improve the company’s operation.

Nakamura Hiroshi “Manager’s Risk-Aversion to Poor Performance and Inter-temporal R & D Decision” Keio Graduate-Univ. Business Forum 1998

6) “Technology transfer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a private university with 4300 undergraduates, 5700 graduate students, and 1000 faculty members. MIT itself receives over $400 million/year in research grants, 75% of which is from the Federal Government, 23% from industry and 2% from charitable foundations. It also operates Lincoln Laboratory which receives $400 million/year for research and development for the U.S. Air force. MIT philosophy is that technology transfer is an important byproduct of the academic mission of discovery, dissemination of knowledge, and education. The academic mission must take first priority, but a robust technology transfer program can be carried out without distorting that mission. There are two major modes of technology transfer from university to industry: The most important of these: the “indirect mode” is carried out by educating students who will bring knowledge and an entrepreneurial attitude to their later jobs and community; and (2) the “direct mode” in which technology is transferred directly from the university to industry. This paper describes the direct mode. The most important direct route is publication, followed by:

(i) Professors consulting to industry outside MIT;

(ii) Collaborative research with industry;

(iii) Out licensing of technology; and

(iv) Startup companies.

In licensing and startups, MIT receives over 400 new inventions / year, has over 150

U.S.

patents issued, and grants over 100 licenses, of which about 25 are new startup companies each year. Key elements in our success are

(i) clear government and university policies;

(ii) senior academic and management support, with realistic expectations for financial return;

(iii) responsive, non-bureaucratic processes and

(iv) talented tech transfer personnel. Technology licensing, including startups, can be expected to contribute no more than a few percent of a university’s budget, and should not be expected to support the university to any substantial extent. The major contribution of the activity is to the economy and the society. Venture capitalized startup companies; in particular, provide a route for development of very early stage technology, which may later be transferred to larger companies through strategic alliances. Success in startups requires an entrepreneurial spirit in the university, with acceptance of risk and the philosophy that failure can be a learning experience, rather than a black mark. It also requires a surrounding community which provides venture capital, management talent, strategy consultants and other infrastructure to help small companies get started and grow. MIT’s role in starting companies centers on protection and licensing of the intellectual property, but we provide an important service in connecting students and faculty to the other resources of the community.”

MIT. “MIT management of technology transfers 2003” MIT Rita. Nelson Manager of TLO 2003

References

1. Bagwell, K and R.W. Staiger “The Sensitivity of Strategic and R & D Policy in Oligopoly Industries” Journal of International Economic 36.1994.  p.133-50.

2. Bagwell, K. and R.W. Staiger “The Sensitivity of Strategic and Corrective R & D Policy in

Battle

for Monopoly” International Economic Review, 33.1992. p.795-816

3. Dertouzos. M. L. Lester, R. K. Solow R.M. and the MIT Commission “Industrial Productivity1989”. MIT Press Cambridge.1989

4. Levin. R.C “Technical Change, Barriers to Entry, and market Structure. ”Economical 45.1978

5. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Japanese Government. “WHITE PAPER ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 2003 -Human Resource in Science and Technology Required of

Japan

in the Future-”

June 2004. p.15-155.

6. Nakamura Hiroshi “Manager’s Risk-Aversion to Poor Performance and Inter-temporal R & D Decision.” Keio Graduate-Univ. Business Forum 15.1998 .p.19-30

7.

Vernon

, R. “International Investment and International Trade in Product Life Cycle” QUE .May 1966. p.24

f( α|highδ)

ウェブページ

資源貿易 第二研究室 (資源開発・貿易のページ)

資源貿易 第四研究室 ー中国・アジア貿易ビジネス編ー

資源 貿易 資料データ

  • 資源 貿易 資料データ

新生・ライカ紀行

DHL スイスビジネス事情